Thousands of people with mental health conditions across Nigeria are chained and locked up in various facilities where they face terrible abuse, Human Right Watch has said in a report.
The rights group also called government to ban chaining as it condemned the terrible abuse faced by thousands of people with mental health conditions across the country.
The HRW report is coming days after Police in Ibadan, Oyo State rescued nearly 259 young people from an Islamic rehabilitation center.
Recall that Police in Kaduna and Katsina had in September and October invaded religious rehabilitation centers, rescuing a more than 500 people.
Many captives had said they were physically and sexually abused and chained up to prevent them from escaping.
HRW in the report said detention, chaining, and violent treatment are pervasive in many settings, including state hospitals, rehabilitation centers, traditional healing centers, and both Christian and Islamic faith-based facilities.
According to Emina Ćerimović, senior disability rights researcher at HRW said, “People with mental health conditions should be supported and provided with effective services in their communities, not chained and abused,”
“People with mental health conditions find themselves in chains in various places in Nigeria, subject to years of unimaginable hardship and abuse.”
It also added that President Muhammadu Buhari had in October said that he would not tolerate the existence of the torture chambers and physical abuses of inmates in the name of rehabilitation.
But said the government has yet to acknowledge that this abuse is rife in government-run facilities too.
“Between August 2018 and September 2019, Human Rights Watch visited 28 facilities ostensibly providing mental health care in 8 states and the Federal Capital Territory, including federal psychiatric hospitals, general state hospitals, state-owned rehabilitation centers, Islamic rehabilitation centers, traditional healing centers, and Christian churches. Human Rights Watch interviewed 124 people, including 49 chaining victims and their families, staff in various facilities, mental health professionals, and government officials. The names of the victims have been changed to protect their safety.”
“Deep-rooted problems in Nigeria’s healthcare and welfare systems leave most Nigerians unable to get adequate mental health care or support in their communities. Stigma and misunderstanding about mental health conditions, including the misperception that they are caused by evil spirits or supernatural forces, often prompt relatives to take their loved ones to religious or traditional healing places.”
“Human Rights Watch found that people with actual or perceived mental health conditions, including children, are placed in facilities without their consent, usually by relatives. In some cases, police arrest people with actual or perceived mental health conditions and send them to government-run rehabilitation centers. Once there, many are shackled with iron chains, around one or both ankles, to heavy objects or to other detainees, in some cases for months or years. They cannot leave, are often confined in overcrowded, unhygienic conditions, and are sometimes forced to sleep, eat, and defecate within the same confined place. Many are physically and emotionally abused as well as forced to take treatments.”
It also stated that a nun in charge during a Human Rights Watch visit to a state-owned rehabilitation center in southeastern Nigeria said they chain people to their beds so they do not run away.
The nun, according to HRW defended chaining a woman who had HIV to stop her from going around the men.
“Human Rights Watch found another woman at the same institution chained naked to her bed.”
“The staff, except one older guard, would leave at 6:30 p.m. each day, leaving residents, including children as young as 13, with no one to help them. The facility has no electricity, so people are chained to their beds in total darkness. The nun said that, the patients are given flashlights to use at night.”
“In a traditional healing center close to Abuja, Nigeria’s capital, Human Rights Watch met a woman who was pinned to a tree trunk with an iron ring. She had been restrained like this for three weeks with her upper body naked. She was unable to move and so she was forced to eat, urinate, and defecate where she sat.”
“Chaining can cause serious injuries and psychological distress. A 35-year-old woman chained for 10 months in an Islamic rehabilitation center in Kano, northern Nigeria, said, everything about this (chaining) is difficult. You feel like you want to commit suicide … regardless of how you felt before coming here, you will get worse.”
It further added that adults and children in some Islamic rehabilitation centers reported being whipped, causing deep wounds.
“People in Christian healing centers and churches described being denied food for up to three days at a time, which staff characterized as fasting for treatment purposes.”
“In many of the traditional and religious rehabilitation centers visited, staff forced people with mental health conditions, including children, to eat or drink herbs, in some cases with staff pinning people down to make them swallow.”
“In psychiatric hospitals and government-run rehabilitation centers, staff forcibly administered medication, while some staff admitted to administering electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) to patients without their consent.”
“In some cases, families took their children – including young adults – to religious and traditional rehabilitation centers for actual or perceived drug use or “deviant behavior, including skipping school, smoking tobacco or marijuana, or stealing from their parents. Some children in the facilities – some as young as 10 – have been abandoned by their families.”